Kashaya Extrametricality and Formal Symmetry

Eugene Buckley


Kager (2012), Martínez-Paricio & Kager (2013), and Martínez-Paricio (2013) propose layered feet to account for a variety of phenomena, including stress windows, mixed binary and ternary alternations, and extrametricality. Although many metrical theories do not accommodate left-edge extrametricality, they use constraints that are almost entirely symmetrical and can therefore capture initial extrametricality in a language like Kashaya (Pomoan: California). Building on their work, however, I argue that the full facts of Kashaya require even more extensive use of the layered, or recursive, foot than in the other languages that they discuss, including recursion over a degenerate foot. To account for these facts formally, I claim that Non-Finality has the counterpart Non-Initiality and that the constraint system is therefore fully symmetrical; and in contrast to many previous formalizations, both are defined in terms of foot structure rather than as avoidance of stress at the edge.


metrical phonology; ternary stress; extrametricality; locality; symmetry

Full Text:



Benua, Laura. 1997. Transderivational identity: Phonological relations between words. PhD dissertation, University of Massachusetts, Amerst.

Bermúdez-Otero, Ricardo. 2011. Cyclicity. The Blackwell companion to phonology, vol. 4, 2019-2048.

Buckley, Eugene. 1994a. Theoretical aspects of Kashaya phonology and morphology. Stanford: Center for the Study of Language and Information.

Buckley, Eugene. 1994b. Persistent and cumulative extrametricality in Kashaya. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 12, 423-464.

Buckley, Eugene. 1997. Optimal iambs in Kashaya. Rivista di Linguistica 9, 9-52.

Buckley, Eugene. 1998. Licensing by the initial foot. Ms., University of Pennsylvania.

Buckley, Eugene. 2009. Locality in metrical phonology. Phonology 26, 389-435.

Eisner, Jason. 1997a. What constraints should OT allow? Handout for talk at the annual meeting of the Linguistic Society of America, Chicago.

Eisner, Jason. 1997b. FOOTFORM decomposed: Using primitive constraints in OT. MIT Working Papers in Linguistics 31, 115-143.

Hale, Kenneth & Josephine White Eagle. 1980. A preliminary metrical account of Winnebago accent. International Journal of American Linguistics 46, 117-132.

Halle, Morris & William Idsardi. 1995. General properties of stress and metrical structure. The handbook of phono¬logical theory, ed. John Goldsmith. Blackwell, 403-443.

Halle, Morris & Jean-Roger Vergnaud. 1987. An essay on stress. MIT Press.

Hayes, Bruce. 1995. Metrical stress theory: Principles and case studies, University of Chicago Press.

Hualde, José I. 1998. A gap filled: Postpostinitial accent in Azkoitia Basque. Linguistics 36, 99-117.

Hyde, Brett. 2002. A restrictive theory of metrical stress. Phonology 19, 313-359.

Hyde, Brett. 2012. Alignment constraints. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 30, 789-836.

Hyde, Brett, Kenneth Hofmeister & Brooke Husic. 2012. Post-peninitial accent in Kashaya: An alter¬native to initial extrametricality. Proceedings of the 29th West Coast Conference on Formal Linguis¬tics, ed. Jaehoon Choi et al., 117-124. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project.

Kager, René. 2001. Rhythmic directionality by positional licensing. Handout for talk at the Fifth HIL Phonology Conference, University of Potsdam.

Kager, René. 2005. Rhythmic licensing theory: An extended typology. Proceedings of the Third Inter¬national Conference on Phonology, 5-31. Seoul: The Phonology-Morphology Circle of Korea.

Kager, René. 2012. Stress in windows: Language typology and factorial typology. Lingua 122, 1454-1493.

Kiparsky, Paul. 2000. Opacity and cyclicity. The Linguistic Review 17, 351-367.

Martínez-Paricio, Violeta. 2013. An exploration of minimal and maximal metrical feet. PhD dissertation, University of Tromsø.

Martínez-Paricio, Violeta & René Kager. 2013. Non-intervention constraints and the binary-to-ternary rhythmic continuum. Handout for talk at the 21st Manchester Phonology Meeting.

McCarthy, John J. 2003. OT constraints are categorical. Phonology 20, 75-138.

Miner, Kenneth L. 1989. Winnebago accent: The rest of the data. Anthropological Linguistics 31, 148-172.

Oswalt, Robert L. 1961. A Kashaya Grammar (Southwestern Pomo). PhD dissertation, University of California, Berkeley.

Oswalt, Robert L. 1964. Kashaya Texts. University of California Publications in Linguistics 36.

Oswalt, Robert L. 1988. The floating accent of Kashaya. In Honor of Mary Haas, ed. William Shipley, 611-621. Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin.

Prince, Alan. 1983. Relating to the grid. Linguistic Inquiry 14, 19-100.

Prince, Alan. 1991. Quantitative consequences of rhythmic organization. Papers from the parasession on the syllable in phonetics and phonology, vol. 26 (2), 355-398. Chicago Linguistics Society.

Prince, Alan & Paul Smolensky. 1993/2004. Optimality theory: Constraint interaction in generative grammar. Blackwell. Available as ROA-537 from the Rutgers Optimality Archive.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3765/amp.v1i1.27

Copyright (c) 2014 Eugene Buckley

License URL: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/