Monthly Archives: November 2008

Tibeto-Burman languages of Nepal: Manange and Sherpa.

Tibeto-Burman languages of Nepal: Manange and Sherpa. Ed. by Carol Genetti. (Pacific linguistics 557.) Canberra: Pacific Linguistics, 2004. Pp. xiv, 324. ISBN 0858835355. $92.39.

Reviewed by Picus S. Ding, Macao Polytechnic Institute

This volume is composed of two descriptive grammars of Tibeto-Burman languages of Nepal: Manange by Kristine Hildebrandt (1–189), and Sherpa by Barbara Kelly (191–324). The preface by Carol Genetti provides a nice introduction to the sociolinguistic background of the minority languages (most of which are Tibeto-Burman) of Nepal.

Hildebrandt’s description of Manange is organized into five chapters. Ch. 1 mainly presents a general background on the language, the people, and the data (9–12). Ch. 2 deals with Manange phonetics and phonology (consonants, vowels, and tone), and some morphology such as reduplication strategies (13–41). Ch. 3 studies the Manange noun phrase, addressing nouns, pronominal paradigms, number, numerals and classifiers, adjectives, case marking, (in)definiteness, and word order in the NP (42–81). Ch. 4, ‘Morphology of the Manange verb complex and the clause’, covers the suffix -pʌ, stem classes, the copula, finite verb morphology (evidentials and aspect), modality, negation, valency adjustment, and word order of the clause (82–111). Ch. 5 examines clause-combining strategies in Manange, discussing complementation, relativization, adverbial modification, serialization, and the clause-chaining suffix -tse (112–30). There are two appendices: one provides a story text in Manange (131–40), and the other is a Manange glossary with an English guide (141–86).

Kelly’s description of Sherpa is also presented in five chapters. Ch. 1 is an introduction to the language, the people, and the data (199–202). Ch. 2 concerns Sherpa phonology (consonants, vowels, tone, phonotactics, and stress), with a comparison of different sounds in Solu and Khumu Sherpa (203–21). Ch. 3 centers on the morphology of the noun phrase, covering the structure of NP, types of lexical nouns, pronouns, number marking, case marking, articles, numerals and measurements, adjectives, and discourse particles (222–36). Ch. 4 focuses on the morphology of the verb phrase, describing copulas, simple and compound verbs, stem classes, finite verb inflection (tense, aspect, evidentials, and the conjunct/disjunct system), mood, causatives, and negation (237–60). Ch. 5 deals with the structure of clauses and sentences, discussing clause structure, word order, adverbial clauses, nominalization, complementation, relativization, and clause chaining (261–74). There are two appendices: one contains a narrative text in Sherpa (275–82), and the other is a Sherpa glossary (283–321).

The inclusion of an English guide, serving as an index to the Manange glossary, is very useful and necessary. It is a pity that this is lacking in the Sherpa glossary, especially given that the two descriptions follow a similar organizational framework. There are a number of spelling typos and inconsistencies, for example, ‘unaspirated’ before /pʰ/ (13); the Manange word for ‘ear’ is given as [ŋı̌mâ] on p. 37 but as [ŋjʌ`mʌ̂ŋ] on p. 38; the rendition of [f] as a phoneme of Sherpa (210) after pointing out that it is a free variant of /ph/ (204), and the retention of [q] as a phoneme in the consonant table (210).

Le français en Amérique du Nord: État présent.

Le français en Amérique du Nord: État présent. Ed. by Albert Valdman, Julie Auger, and Deborah Piston-Hatlen. (Collection Langue française en Amérique du Nord.) Saint-Nicolas: Les Presses de l’Université Laval, 2005. Pp. 583. ISBN 2763782426. $45 (Hb).

Reviewed by Jan Holeš, Palacký University

The French language in North America has had a long history, lasting for four hundred years. It has always coexisted there with a number of Indo-European and indigenous Indian languages. This makes North America a fascinating linguistic laboratory, which can cast light on many questions about the history of French, the formation of creole languages, and some general problems related to the evolution of language. This collection of papers overall provides insight into these areas.


The book is divided into four main sections, containing twenty-six contributions written by renowned experts. The first part presents practically all French-speaking communities in North America, with the exception of the archipelago of Saint-Pierre et Miquelon where there is a variety of French that is quite similar to European French. The first group of papers gathered in this part describe the demographically most important communities (Quebec, Acadia, Ontario, New England, and Louisiana); the second group deals with lesser-known and peripheral communities, often ensconced in an English-speaking environment (Newfoundland, the Canadian West, isolated French-speaking communities in the US, and Saint-Barthélemy, a French island located in the Caribbean).


The second part contains six articles analyzing the phenomena of language contact and decline. Three articles focus on Louisiana French and deal with the history and the present state of Cajun French, its variation, and the problem of the demarcation of Louisiana language varieties. Two articles describe mixed languages used in Canada, namely the Chiac language (a vernacular French mixed with English used near Moncton in Acadia) and the Michif language (a French-Cree creole characterized especially by French nouns and Cree verbs). Another article is concerned with the role of linguistic and extralinguistic factors in the devernacularization of the language in minority French-speaking communities in Canada.


The third part examines the efforts toward the maintenance of French varieties outside Quebec, often menaced by extinction. The articles deal with the elaboration of language norms in Quebec, Acadia, and Louisiana; the revitalization of Louisiana Cajun French and French in the Canadian Maritime Provinces; and the roles of Creole and French in the cultural identity of the Haitian diaspora.


The last part turns to comparative and historical studies, investigating structural affinities and divergences of Acadian French in Canada and Louisiana, the origin and structures of French creoles in America, the hypothesis of a common origin of North-American French, correspondences and differences between the French used in Missouri and Canadian French, and the necessity of examining textual sources dating from the colonial period.


This book will become a precious resource for researchers in the fields of Francophony, creolistics, and demolinguistics. It will be useful for those who want to understand the present sociolinguistic situation in various parts of North America. Several articles present recent results of research carried out on the spot. It will become a basis for further descriptions of French on this continent.


English syntax: An introduction.

English syntax: An introduction. By Andrew Radford. London: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Pp. xi, 384. ISBN 0521542758. $31.99.

Reviewed by William Davies, University of Iowa

A slew of new syntax textbooks has appeared over the past three or four years. The majority target advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate students, and a sizable proportion of these attempts to acquaint students with some incarnation of a minimalist framework. Radford’s English syntax: An introduction falls into the category addressing both groups of students. An abridged version of Minimalist syntax: Exploring the structure of English, this text takes students from the theoretical underpinnings of Chomskyan syntax to edge phenomena and the notion of phases.


Ch. 1, ‘Grammar’, presents the key motivations, assumptions, and constructs of Chomskyan theory and the minimalist program, for example, innateness, competence and performance, universal grammar, parameters, and more. Ch. 2, ‘Words’, sets out the necessary lexical categories and provides diagnostics for category membership. The distinction between lexical and functional categories is introduced, as are grammatical, selectional, and categorial features. Ch. 3, ‘Structures’, develops a framework for phrase structure faithful to current practice, as well as discussing the extended projection principle (EPP) and key phrase-structure relations such as c-command and sister.


Ch. 4, ‘Null constituents’, deals with PRO and pro, and with null functional categories in both finite and nonfinite clauses. Case is also brought into consideration in this chapter. Ch. 5, ‘Head movement’, develops the construct of movement with the copy-and-deletion theory of movement through T to C, V to T, Aux raising, and others. There is also a substantial subsection on do-support. In Ch. 6, ‘Wh-movement’, R further amplifies the copy-and-delete mechanism through wh-questions and relative clause formation, discussing the motivation for and various constraints on wh-movement. He also introduces the notions of minimality and pied-piping.


Ch. 7, ‘A-movement’, tackles the expected types of movement structures and includes diagnostics for distinguishing raising and control. The chapter also brings into the framework the concepts of argument structure and thematic roles, and, naturally, various constraints on A-movement. Case and φ features and their role in determining pleonastic and expletive subjects and movement are the topic of Ch. 8, ‘Agreement, case and movement’. Null case and the EPP in nonfinite clauses are also discussed at some length. In Ch. 9, ‘Split projections’, split CP and VP shells are motivated. Included is extensive discussion of the application of the VP shell to unaccusative, passive, and raising verbs. Finally, Ch. 10, ‘Phases’, develops the notion of phases and brings to bear evidence for successive cyclic movement and movement through both CP and vP.


Two components of the book deserve mention. Each chapter includes a ‘workbook section’ that consists of two extended problems. For each problem, R provides a model answer for one of the data points for students to use as a guide. Further, most problems also include a ‘helpful hints’ section that provides students additional guidance in strategies to answer the question. Some of these sections are quite extensive and almost constitute mini-lessons of their own. Also included is a forty-five-page glossary of terms and abbreviations used in the book—a feature that will undoubtedly be appreciated by students as well as instructors.


Some part of the explanation for the large number of syntactic textbooks published in the recent past undoubtedly is the dissatisfaction most instructors feel with some aspect or another of the text they were using in class. Most who select this book will likely have quibbles here and there, but will find that the coverage is good and many of the formulations quite faithful to the original research on which they are based.

Innamincka talk: A grammar of the Innamincka dialect of Yandruwandha with notes on other dialects. and Innamincka words: Yandruwandha dictionary and stories.

Innamincka talk: A grammar of the Innamincka dialect of Yandruwandha with notes on other dialects. By Gavan Breen. (Pacific linguistics 558.) Canberra: Pacific Linguistics, 2004. Pp. xvii, 245. ISBN 0858835479. $60.28.


Innamincka words: Yandruwandha dictionary and stories. By Gavan Breen. (Pacific linguistics 559.) Canberra: Pacific Linguistics, 2004. Pp. x, 218. ISBN 0858835487. $55.17.

Reviewed by Harald Hammarström, Chalmers University

The distinguished Australian salvage linguist Gavan Breen has completed a fine two-volume set on the Innamincka dialect of Yandruwandha: one grammar volume for the typologist/Australian linguist and one ‘less technical’ dictionary (with texts) intended to be of interest also for the descendant community.


Most of the metadata on the language and its study is in the grammar volume. Yandruwandha was spoken in the north-east corner of South Australia. The data for the description was collected from 1967–1976, mainly from the last two good speakers. Innamincka has been dead since 1976, meaning that there is at present nobody left with a reasonable command of the language. It is a Pama-Nyungan language, with a typical P-N typological profile, classified in the (less than secure) Karna subgroup whose most well-known language is Diyari.


As in most grammars, the descriptive data starts off with the phoneme inventory. The phonology section as a whole is surprisingly detailed, containing information such as (morpho)phonological rules, sentence intonation, and a phoneme frequency chart. Understandably, given the circumstances of data availability, there are a number of uncertainties on minor matters. However, and this is something I especially like about this grammar, B always shows on what basis something is affirmed, doubted, or cannot be known.


The next chapter, somewhat misplaced, discusses word order and phrase order. In this language it is grammatical to permute the order of phrases and words quite freely, and also to split phrases. But, at least from the corpus of recorded sentences, there are some clear statistical tendencies, such as not to split phrases, SOV/AOV word order, and initial question-word placement.


The following chapter discusses how the phonological word and grammatical word may be defined in Innamincka Yandruwandha. Most grammars, including modern ones, fail to treat this question, as famously lamented by R. M. W. Dixon and Alexandra Aikhenvald in their editors’ introduction to Word: A cross-linguistic typology (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002, pp. 1–41).


Information on word classes, pronoun inflection, simple sentences, noun inflection, and noun-stem formation follow with few surprises. The verb has a lot of suffixal inflection, which is the topic of another chapter. There is no indication that the description is incomplete (again, given the limits of data availability), except for an occasional suffix of unknown function. The verb can be further modified with bound markers indicating aspect, direction of motion, emphasis, and more, inserted between the root and inflection. In fact, verb stems can incorporate adverb and noun roots, another verb, and even an inflected noun, and then take the bound marker and an inflectional suffix. Further chapters cover complex clauses, particles, conjunctions, interjections, and clitics.


The grammar is entirely functional, described in plain English with no trees, acronyms, or formulae whatsoever.


There is not as much to say about the companion dictionary volume. The dictionary is Innamincka to English (beginning at D since no word begins with A, B, or C) with an English finder list. It contains separate sections on place names, naming of new concepts, and kinship terms. Also, there is a very useful alphabetical list of suffixes. There is not much text material, but all of it is diligently annotated with interlinear translation.


We are thankful to B for filling this gap in documentation. As it is much more complete than a sketch grammar or other salvage studies, it will certainly be valuable to Australianists and typologists alike (and hopefully of interest to the descendant community).


The Tai languages of Assam: A grammar and texts.

The Tai languages of Assam: A grammar and texts. By Stephen Morey. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics, 2005. Pp. xxiii, 413. ISBN 0858835495. $97.64.

Reviewed by Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald, Research Centre for Linguistic Typology,

La Trobe University

This is the first comprehensive compendium on the Tai languages of Northeast India—Phake, Aiton, and Khamyang (all spoken in Assam), as well as Khamti, a variety of Arunachali Tai, and the practically extinct Tai Ahom. The book is a model example of large-scale language documentation in the true sense of the word. It includes a theoretically informed grammatical description, a selection of texts, and an extensive discussion of the previous sources, accompanied by a dialect survey and a brief introduction to the customs and the culture. The book also contains dictionary materials. It is accompanied by a CD that presents a rich corpus of texts both in transcription and as sound files, in addition to an electronic version of the grammar in which just about every language example is linked to a sound file and to the file containing the text from which it was drawn. This innovative feature places the book on the cutting edge of modern technological advances, which invite the reader to be able to check the original sources. This creates a truly multidimensional edition.


The book consists of eleven chapters. Ch. 1, ‘Introduction’, provides the methodological backdrop for the study. Morey states his ‘ideological commitment to the documentation and description of endangered languages’—all of the languages discussed in his book belong to this category. The current technological advances allow linguists committed to documenting languages to go beyond doing this in books: as noted previously, the electronic version of the book that is on the CD allows for the addition of sound files for most language examples and the spoken texts on which the grammar is based, and also photographs and biographies of language consultants. The rest of this chapter offers an overview of the Tai language family, a quick look into the fieldwork conducted by M, and the data on which the study is based. M returns to a meticulously detailed discussion of the methodology of data collection, analysis, and translation of the texts in Ch. 5, after having provided an in-depth discussion of the linguistic situation and cultural context of the Tai-speakers of Assam (Ch. 2, ‘The Tais of Assam and their languages’), and of previous studies and mentions in the linguistic literature (Ch. 3, ‘Previous studies of the Tai languages’). Ch. 4, ‘Theoretical considerations’, outlines the analytic approach, opting for basic linguistic theory as the preferred analytic framework.


Ch. 6 concentrates on phonology, starting with a brief presentation of proto-Southwestern Tai segmental and suprasegmental features, and then going on to the analysis of Phake and Aiton, with preliminary observations on Khamyang. In Ch. 7, M discusses the scripts for each individual language. Ch. 8, ‘Syntax’, is in actual fact the gist of the grammar: it contains a brief description of word classes, major constituents (including constituent order), and basic clause types. It includes incisive discussion of some topics. For instance, the status of adjectives as an independent word class rather than as a subclass of verbs is demonstrated through their syntactic function as noun modifiers (verbs cannot modify nouns) and the limited applicability of tense, aspect, and mood markers. Somewhat less attention is paid to the types, and structures, of complex sentences.


The types of literary genres, and the texts available in Tai languages, are discussed in Ch. 9, ‘The literature of the Tai’. Ch. 10, ‘Lexicography’, provides an overview of the existing dictionaries of the Tai languages discussed. The short final chapter, wisely called ‘Postscript’, discusses technical problems with creating and working with nonstandard fonts, presenting the sound files, data archiving, and the like.


In summary, this is an outstanding achievement that will serve as a modal of linguistic documentation for future linguists. Pacific Linguistics is to be congratulated on this.

Text, context, pretext: Critical issues in discourse analysis.

Text, context, pretext: Critical issues in discourse analysis. By H. G. Widdowson. Oxford: Blackwell, 2004. Pp. x, 185. ISBN 0631234527. $27.95.

Reviewed by Mousa A. Btoosh, Al-Hussein Bin Talal University

This book, which makes an outstanding contribution to the scholarly research on discourse analysis, addresses a number of challenges and problematic issues that have remained largely uninvestigated in the previous vast literature on this field. Widdowson is remarkably successful in his attempt to bring into the light and provide answers to several controversial questions related to a number of concepts and areas including text, discourse, context, cotext, and pretext.


The book consists of ten chapters, with a preface and references. In the preface, W explains that this work is ‘a reconceptualized and extended version’ of his Ph.D. thesis written in 1973. Ch. 1, ‘Text and discourse’ (1–16), sheds light on the weaknesses of the previous and long-established conceptual distinctions between discourse and text.


Ch. 2, ‘Text and grammar’ (17–35), examines the relationship between text and grammar within the framework of the generative grammar of Noam Chomsky and the systemic-functional grammar of M. A. K. Halliday. Irrespective of the traditional claims that Halliday’s model is functional, it clearly fails to account for the pragmatic use of texts.


Ch. 3, ‘Context’ (36–57), considers and criticizes the representations of context in previous major works, concluding that textual interpretation essentially involves extralinguistic factors. Ch. 4,‘Context and co-text’ (58–73), distinguishes between the internal literal message of the text (depending on cotextual relations) and the external pragmatic message (depending on contextual relations). According to W, ‘co-textual relations are only realized by users to the extent that they are contextually relevant’ (71). Ch. 5, ‘Pretext’ (74–88), investigates the direct involvement of the ulterior motive, a fabricated reason for doing something used to hide the real reason, in the interpretation process.


Chs. 6 and 7, which shift in their focus from text-discourse distinction to methodology, present two approaches to discourse analysis. Ch. 6, ‘Critical discourse analysis’ (89–111), provides substantial evidence of the failure of critical discourse analysis (CDA) to provide interpretation based on a close analysis of textual features. Ch. 7, ‘Text and corpus analysis’ (112–27), makes it explicit that the concordancing lines of the corpus-based approach cannot deduce the contextual factors from cotextual ones.


Ch. 8, ‘Analysis and interpretation’ (128–46), asserts that interpretation is not derived from a blow-by-blow and systematic analysis of the textual features, but rather from the interpretation of texts governed by external or contextual factors. Ch. 9, ‘Approach and method’ (147–64), accounts for the reasons attributed to the contradiction we find between the claims and practices of CDA. According to W, this is mainly attributed to the confusion found in CDA literature about the concepts of ‘approach’ and ‘method’. The last chapter, ‘Conclusion’ (165–74), provides concluding statements about the major points raised throughout the book.


Overall, this book lives up to all of its grand goals and constitutes a well-referenced text and an invaluable source for all those interested in discourse analysis. If students and researchers are to understand what discourse analysis is, then a work such as this is certainly needed.

Introducing phonetics and phonology.

Introducing phonetics and phonology. 2nd edn. By Mike Davenport and S. J. Hannahs. London: Hodder Arnold, 2005. Pp. xvi, 223. ISBN 0340810459. $34.95.

Reviewed by Carolina González, Florida State University

Introducing phonetics and phonology is an introductory undergraduate textbook that discusses the fundamentals of articulatory and acoustic phonetics (Chs. 1–6) and the main concepts and frameworks in phonological theory (Chs. 7–12). For its second edition, the volume has been revised and a chapter on suprasegmentals has been added.


Ch. 1, which briefly discusses generative linguistics, serves as a general introduction to the areas of phonetics and phonology. Chs. 2–4 focus on articulatory phonetics and the articulatory characterization of the consonants and vowels of British and American English. Ch. 5 provides a basic introduction to acoustic phonetics, covering the acoustic properties of speech sounds and the two most commonly used types of acoustic displays: spectrograms and waveforms.


Ch. 6, new to the second edition, concentrates on suprasegmentals. It looks in detail at the syllable and its organization and also considers stress, tone, and intonation. The remaining chapters offer an introduction to phonology. Ch. 7 provides an overview of features, and Ch. 8 outlines the fundamentals of phonological analysis, including the distinction between phonemes and allophones and the difference between surface and underlying forms. Ch. 8 also introduces the concept of the phonological rule, further explained in Ch. 9, which discusses phonological processes and alternations.


Ch. 10 deals with feature organization and introduces feature geometry, autosegmental phonology, and underspecification. A more advanced discussion of syllable structure is also included in this chapter, as well as some information on other units of phonological organization like the mora and the foot. Ch. 11 focuses on derivational analyses and examines important issues for any phonologist, including how to decide among competing analyses and how to choose underlying forms. Ch. 12 discusses the tension between the abstract and the concrete and covers issues such as learnability, plausibility, and the need to distinguish between synchrony and diachrony in phonological analyses. Lexical phonology and optimality theory are also briefly discussed in the last chapter. The volume ends with a list of references and various indices.


This volume is a very accessible and readable introduction to phonetics and phonology. Some of its highlights are the concise and straightforward explanation of how to conduct phonological analyses and of the issues every analyst has to be aware of when choosing among competing analyses or frameworks.


This book might be best suited as a primary textbook for introductory linguistic courses that cover the basics of both phonetics and phonology, especially for students with no previous background in linguistics. Since it discusses many varieties of British and American English, this book is also a good option for introductory linguistic courses in English programs. Suggestions for further relevant secondary sources and a few exercises are offered at the end of every chapter, which can help to supplement the presentation of the topics covered in this book.


Studies in linguistic motivation.

Studies in linguistic motivation. Ed. by Günter Radden and Klaus-Uwe Panther. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2004. Pp. viii, 389. ISBN 3110182459. $180 (Hb).

Reviewed by Annalisa Baicchi, University of Pavia

The issue of the pervasiveness of motivation in natural language is tackled in this thought-provoking volume, which must be considered as a fundamental contribution since it reviews the current research on the topic and paves the way for future lines of investigation. The volume consists of twelve papers grouped into four sections that address the topic from four different perspectives (ecological, genetic, experiential, cognitive). In addition, Radden and Panther’s insightful introductory paper, ‘Introduction: Reflections on motivation’, offers an exhaustive overview of linguistic motivation, which ‘is receiving increasing attention in present-day functional and cognitive linguistics’ (1), and illustrates the semiotic criteria useful for its understanding.


Ecological motivation is examined by John Taylor (‘The ecology of construction’) and by Ad Foolen (‘Expressive binomial NPs in Germanic and Romance languages’).  Analyzing in depth the constructional idiom Bang goes + NP[subj], Taylor argues that constructions—which are motivated when related to the other language units of phonological, semantic, and symbolic type—never occur in isolation but occupy an ecological niche within a network of relations. Foolen discusses the double-headedness in constructions like She is an angel of a child, whereby angel is the expressive head and child is the referential head, and convincingly shows that such a construction represents a highly motivated direction from conceptual content to syntactic form.


In the second section, Bernd Heine (‘On genetic motivation in grammar’) and Christian Koops (‘Emergent aspect construction in Present-Day-English’) discuss genetic motivation, a label coined by Heine to refer to the diachronic motivation. Heine takes up the categories of numerals, indefinite reference, and predicative possession to compare and contrast the structural motivation and the genetic motivation. Koops studies the grammaticalization of three constructions across languages conveying progressive meaning, and clearly shows that the progressive aspect follows from the three source concepts of location, motion, and posture.


Experiential motivation is addressed in the third section. Vyvyan Evans and Andrea Tyler, in ‘Spatial experience, lexical structure and motivation: The case on in’, brilliantly discuss the motivation of lexical structures analyzing the figurative extensions of the polysemous English particle in. John Newman, in ‘Motivating the uses of basic verbs: Linguistic and extralinguistic considerations’, examines some basic verbs from various languages in their metaphorical extensions motivated by body-based experiential concepts.


The last section takes into account cognitive motivation in full depth. Teenie Matlock, in ‘The conceptual motivation of fictive motion’, claims that, when in the presence of a fictive motion construction like the road runs along the coast, we mentally scan the trajectory and simulate motion along a path; interestingly, she shows that we construct a different dynamical representation of fictive motion depending on the verb encoding motion. Anatol Stefanowitsch and Ada Rohde, in ‘The goal bias in the encoding of motion events’, clearly demonstrate that the wider use of goal PPs is motivated by the major salience of goals of motion over sources, and by the higher information values of goal PPs, which allow for inference of initial and medial segments of a path. Gerhard B. van Huyssteen, in ‘Motivating the composition of Afrikaans reduplications: A cognitive grammar analysis’, examines the iconic motivation exemplifying cases of onomatopoeic and grammatical reduplication in Afrikaans, which he discusses from the framework of conceptual metonymy.


Francisco Ruiz de Mendoza Ibañez and Olga Díez Velasco, in ‘Metonymic motivation in anaphoric reference’, tackle the thorny issue of the selection of anaphoric pronouns in the English language when they have metonymic antecedents; the authors propose a challenging solution relying on their theory of metonymic mapping. Rita Brdar-Szabó and Mario Brdar, in ‘Predicative adjectives and grammatical-relational polysemy: The role of metonymic processes in motivating cross-linguistic differences’, compare some English polysemous constructions with predicative adjectives with their equivalents in Croatian, German, and Hungarian, and insightfully show that English relies on metonymic processes to rearrange argument structure and to keep the adjectival construction constant, an operation that is limited and even absent in the other three languages. Antonio Barcelona, in ‘Metonymy behind grammar: The motivation of the seemingly “irregular” grammatical behaviour of English paragon names’, focuses on the motivation of proper names used as paragon names, as in There are three Shakespeares in my college, and identifies two metonymies that motivate paragons and the behavior of paragon names.