Monthly Archives: October 2011

What is morphology?

What is morphology? 2nd edn. By Mark Aronoff and Kirsten Fudeman. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010. Pp. xx, 290. ISBN 9781405194679. $36.95.

Reviewed by Mark J. Elson, University of Virginia

This book comprises eight chapters: ‘Thinking about morphology and morphological analysis’ (1–32), ‘Words and lexemes’ (33–72), ‘Morphology and phonology’ (73–108), ‘Derivation and the lexicon’ (109–35), ‘Derivation and semantics’ (136–56), ‘Inflection’ (157–95), ‘Morphology and syntax’ (196–225), and ‘Morphological productivity and the mental lexicon’ (226–57). The chapters are followed by a glossary, references, and an index. The authors note that their book, unlike others of its kind that emphasize theory, concentrates on description, analysis, and the fundamental issues that face all theories of morphology (viii).

A second, equally welcome, feature is the inclusion in each chapter of relevant data from Kujamaat Jóola, a Senegalese language, intended to exemplify the points made in the chapter and, by the end of the book, to have presented a more in-depth view of the morphology of a single language. The authors acknowledge that Kujamaat Jóola as an exemplar can be questioned on the grounds that its morphology is predominantly agglutinative and thus provides limited exposure to the less transparent phenomena of fusional morphologies, but they maintain that the introductory nature of the book justifies its choice (x). There will surely be widespread agreement with the consensus of comments included by the publisher that this book is a reader-friendly guide providing a good comprehensive introduction to morphological theory and practice, the latter by way of well-constructed exercises.

It should be noted that there are occasional data-related issues and inaccuracies or misleading statements. To name a few, Romanian verb forms appear without orthographically required diacritics (178), and the present indicative of umplea, cited as a representative of the second conjugation, appears with the stress pattern of the third (178). Spanish fue is third-person singular, not first-person singular (176); Italian orthography does indicate stress in verb forms, when it is final, thus, in the third-person singular preterit of regular verbs (89). Hebrew gender agreement of the verb with its subject is not limited to the present (199) but occurs in the past and future as well, although differing structurally from its manifestation in the present. The Russian past tense originally comprised a participle showing agreement, thus not an adjective in the usual sense of the term (199); syncretism does occur in the present indicative of the Romanian first conjugation, between the third-person singular and the third-person plural (178).

Of potentially greater pedagogical consequence is the absence of adequate discussion relating to the issue of the role of grammar (i.e. nonphonetic factors) in the distribution of allomorphs. Jan Baudouin de Courtenay and Roman Jakobson, for whom the issue was of great importance, are mentioned in the preface, but their important contribution to our understanding of allomorphy is not mentioned, nor is either included in the list of references. Some may also question the authors’ initial presentation of morphemes. These units, they claim without citing precedent, are ‘often defined as the smallest linguistic pieces with a grammatical (emphasis mine) meaning’, but add that this definition is ‘not meant to include all morphemes’, that ‘a morpheme may consist of a word, such as hand, or a meaningful piece of a word, such as the -ed of looked…’ (2). If it was their goal, given this qualification, to impart the commonly held view that morphemes may have lexical meaning as well as grammatical, it is difficult to see pedagogical justification for proceeding from a definition that limits them to the latter.

Romance languages: A historical introduction

Romance languages: A historical introduction. By Ti Alkire and Carol Rosen. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010. Pp. 388. ISBN 9780521717847. $41.

Reviewed by Iván Ortega-Santos, University of Memphis

Ti Alkire and Carol Rosen’s introduction to the history of Romance languages focuses on five major languages: Spanish, French, Italian, Portuguese, and Romanian. Spanish, French, and Italian are discussed together in the first eight chapters, and Portuguese and Romanian are presented in separate chapters that follow (Ch. 9 and Ch. 10, respectively). Particular emphasis is put on the evolution of the sound system; Chs. 1–5 look at Spanish, French, and Italian. Emphasis is put also on morphological evolution: verb morphology in Chs. 6–7 and noun and adjective morphology in Ch. 8, for the same three languages. In Ch. 11, the authors look at the evolution of the lexicon in all five languages.

Ch. 1 (5–25) deals with the vowel system of Latin and its evolution in Spanish, French, and Italian. Chs. 2–4 (26–76) focus on the evolution of the consonant system (e.g. degemination in Spanish and French, lenition processes, or the birth of new consonants). Ch. 5 (77–94) further discusses the vowel system (e.g. vowel raising in Italian and yod effects in Spanish and French). The evolution of the present indicative and the rest of the tenses is discussed in Chs. 6 and 7 respectively. Ch. 8 (185–205) deals with the development of the nominal, adjectival, and pronominal system in these three languages. A discussion of Portuguese and Romanian, in Ch. 9 (209–51) and Ch. 10 (252–86), respectively, follow a similar approach. The lexicon is taken up in Ch. 11 (287–316), and particular attention is paid to word formation processes and loanwords. Additionally, in Ch. 12 (317–38), further attention is paid to the earliest Romance texts showing the emergence of the Romance vernaculars or dialect standardization.

Interspersed throughout the chapters are a number of carefully chosen topics that will be appealing to readers, including the birth and death of rules or how researchers gained an insight into Popular Latin. Syntax is briefly discussed with morphology when relevant; for instance, the birth of the definite article and the change from synthetic to periphrastic passive forms are presented.

Though some degree of familiarity with linguistic terms is certainly assumed, most technical words are explained in the body of the text or else in the glossary. In general, the discussion stands out as particularly clear, as is necessary for an introduction. The exercises contribute further to the usefulness of this book.

Some scholars will miss a more extensive discussion of the evolution of syntax in these languages. However, one should bear in mind that this is an introduction and that extensive attention has been paid to other matters. By necessity some aspects were omitted from the discussion (e.g. the birth of analytic comparative and superlative forms). The highly detailed use of references concerning the analyses and derivations discussed will prove useful not only to beginning students but also to more seasoned scholars. All in all, this book is an excellent pedagogical tool.

An introduction to language and communication

Linguistics: An introduction to language and communication. 6th edn. By Adrian Akmajian, Richard A. Demers, Ann K. Farmer, and Robert M. Harnish. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2010. Pp. xiv, 630. ISBN 9780262513708. $45.

Reviewed by Reda A. H. Mahmoud, Minya University

This updated and revised sixth edition of Introduction to language and communication handles the fundamental concepts in linguistics on both structural and cognitive levels. The book is divided into two parts. Part 1 deals with the basic structural elements of linguistics, starting with morphology, phonetics, phonology, syntax, semantics, language variation, and language change. Part 2 includes the cognitive-oriented sections on pragmatics, psycholinguistics, language acquisition, and language and the brain. These two main parts are the results of classroom experience and discussion, reflecting the authors’ intention for this book to be used in course design.

In eight chapters, Part 1 introduces and discusses the core areas of structural linguistics. Chs. 2–6 handle the discrete units for the traditional main fields (e.g. morphemes, phonemic and phonetic features, syntactic units, and word formation processes), the properties of these structural units, and the rules that characterize the combination and organization of these units. Chs. 7 and 8 focus on the ways that language varies across individual speakers and dialect groups, and how languages vary and relate to each other historically.

Part 2 departs from structural linguistics and turns to language use and acquisition, relying on the main concepts introduced in the first part. This part deals generally with language use and cognition, incorporating significant issues in philosophy, psychology, neuroscience, computer science, and artificial intelligence. Ch. 9 explores the nature of pragmatics, its subareas, and the study of language use in relation to structure and context of use. Chs. 10–11 focus on the study of the acquisition and use of linguistic knowledge. Ch. 10 investigates the production and comprehension of speech and explains how linguistic knowledge is represented in the mind and how this information is put to use in communication. Ch. 11 is devoted to the acquisition of language, exploring the development of human language compared to other primates in order to understand the processes of learning and the complexity of communication systems. Finally, Ch. 12 approaches the study of the neural basis of language by exploring the experiences of patients who have problems with speech production and comprehension.

Every chapter in this book is supported by plentiful illustrative examples from English and other languages, study questions, exercises, and recommendation for further reading. The book also includes a valuable glossary of linguistic terms.

The sociolinguistics of English and Nigerian languages

The sociolinguistics of English and Nigerian languages. Ed. by Dele Adeyanju. (LINCOM studies in sociolinguistics 6). Munich: LINCOM Europa, 2009. Pp. 306. ISBN 9783895865794. $108.77.

Reviewed by Gian Claudio Batic, University of Naples ‘L’Orientale’

The contributions included in this book offer, with varying degrees of originality, a general picture of the complex relationship between English and Nigerian languages. The book is divided into eighteen chapters preceded by a foreword, written by Herbert Igboanusi, and a short introduction.

The article by Dele Adeyanju (1–13) focuses on the longstanding relationship of English with indigenous Nigerian languages. Sola Babatunde (14–29) discusses the issues of multilingualism, sustaining the need to improve bi- and multilingualism as a tool of regional development. I.E. Olaosun (30–39) sees English as a predatory entity and suggests that, to avoid the disappearance of indigenous languages, ‘the functional territories of the English Language should be cut down to consign pre-eminent roles to the indigenous languages in the country’ (31). R.A. Soyele (40–58) assesses language attitude in the use of Yoruba and English with regard to the legislature and media power domains in Ogun State.

C.B. Egwuogu (59–68) analyzes the role of English as a vehicle of globalization, highlighting the passive role of African languages in such a process. He proposes that local languages assume some of the functions reserved for ‘colonial languages’ (e.g. English and French). Mahfouz A. Adedimeji (69–87) conceives of globalization as a threatening process whose main targets are the developing nations. Affirming that ‘the US offers a good example for Nigeria in terms of protecting the linguistic rights of her citizens’ (81), Adedimaji argues that a lesson could be drawn from what he calls ‘the American paradigm’. Adeniyi Harrison and Bello O. R. (88–99) stress the importance of minority languages for the development of the country, concluding that the government should reach the people in the language they speak. Akinola A. Asiyanbola (99–113) analyzes the role of English in Nigerian universities. The following chapter by Oyinkan Medubi (114–28) focuses on the metaphorical nativization of terms of address in the context of English. The article by Ayoyinka O. Ogunsanya (129–56) deals with an interesting phenomenon: the emergence of English as a mother tongue among the elite children in Lagos. Fadaro J. Oludare (157–77) presents a study carried out in Osun State with the purpose of assessing the teaching of oral English at the secondary school level.

From a diachronic perspective, Adeyemi O. Babajide (178–90) analyzes epitaph writing in a few cities of Yoruba. Henry J. Hunjo (191–205) discusses President Yar’adua’s letter of campaign as a new kind of social tie between the writer (the former president) and the reader (the electorate). The employment of slang expression among university undergraduate student is addressed by Ayo Osisanwo (206–22). ‘Demola Jolayemi (223–37) adopts a sociophonetic approach to examining gbòzà, a word evolved in the lexical repertoire of Nigerians as a ‘societal response to the overbearing presence of the military in the Nigerian polity’ (235). Abolaji S. Mustapha’s article (238-51) deals with the status of Nigerian English as an English as a second language (ESL) variety. K.K. Olaniyan (252–75) analyzes conversational interactions in Chinua Achebe’s A man of the people. The contribution by Jide Balogun (276–84) uses Jamaica Kincaid’s A small place to investigate whether the colonizer in the West Indies should be identified with the White or the Black.

This volume presents an original collection of quality articles that deal mostly with the sociolinguistic situation of southern Nigeria. The general point of view stressed by the contributors is that indigenous languages should compete with English as tools for national development. The book is rich in suggestions and might offer insight for language planners and policy makers.

Using Chinese synonyms

Using Chinese synonyms. By Grace Qiao Zhang. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010. Pp. ix, 446. ISBN 9780521617871. $39.99.

Reviewed by Mikael Thompson, Bloomington IN

Grace Qiao Zhang’s Using Chinese synonyms collects about 1700 Mandarin Chinese words and expressions into 315 sets of synonyms. Within each set the words are ranked by register from most formal to least, their meanings carefully distinguished and important grammatical information and numerous example sentences provided. The book is intended for intermediate to advanced students of Mandarin and not surprisingly is based on mainland standards. Pronunciations are indicated with pinyin, only simplified characters are used, and the frequency and difficulty level of each word is given as judged for the HSK (the national language proficiency test of the People’s Republic of China).

The main body of the book is divided into two parts, with pages numbered 1–42 and 1–393; although a bit confusing at first, this numbering system soon presents no trouble. There are three finding lists, a pinyin list of all words (1–20), and a pinyin list of frame titles (headwords for each set of synonyms, 21–36) in the first part, as well as an introduction explaining the use of the book (first part, 37–42). The second part of the book includes an index of English glosses (372–93) and a bibliography (370–71).

Each set of synonyms is labeled by the word chosen as most general or neutral, and all members of a set have the same word class. Each set is organized into three columns: the pronunciation, characters, word class, register, and HSK frequency/difficulty level on the left; an English gloss, definition, grammatical information, important connotations, antonyms, and other similar features in the middle; and from three to ten example sentences on the right. More detailed notes (particularly the meaning and use of a given word in another word class and related words in other word classes) are provided at the end of each set.

The book covers a wide range of meanings and major function words, including prepositions and important classifiers. As an example, the set for guǎngkuò ‘wide’ (161–63) includes ten synonyms with detailed connotations that can bedevil students, such as guǎngdà ‘large and vast (of land or territory), large-scale, massive, numerous (of people)’, guǎngfàn ‘wide-ranging, widespread, extensive (usu. referring to abstract items)’, kāikuò ‘open, wide, spacious (of area, mind, etc.)’, and kuāndà ‘spacious, wide, generous (referring to concrete or abstract items)’, along with fifty-five example sentences illustrating the various connotations of these words.

This is a  well organized book richly informed by the author’s long experience teaching Chinese at the university level. It is highly recommended for all English-language students of Mandarin, who would do very well to obtain a copy when starting the intermediate level and refer to it regularly thereafter. It is also a valuable reference for Mandarin teachers. In short, this is a book I wish I had had when I was learning Chinese.

Proto-Austronesian phonology with glossary

Proto-Austronesian phonology with glossary. By John U. Wolff. Vol. 1. Ithaca, NY: Southeast Asia Program, 2010. Pp. xix, 544. ISBN 9780877275329. $29.95. Vol. 2. Ithaca, NY: Southeast Asia Program, 2010. Pp. iii, 601. ISBN 9780877275336. $29.95.

Reviewed by David Elton Gay, Bloomington, IN

John Wolff’s Proto-Austronesian phonology with glossary is, he tells us, a ‘project to update Dempwolff’s Vergleichende lautlehre (1934-38), the cornerstone of the historical study of the Austronesian languages’ (vol. 1:xi).

W’s book (published as two volumes, with continuous pagination) is divided into three basic sections. The first is an introductory section that consists of three chapters covering the Austronesian languages as a language group, ‘considerations of theory and methodology’ relevant to the study of Proto-Austronesian and, finally, introducing ‘Proto-Austronesian phonemes and other issues of phonology’. Much of what is here is surprisingly introductory, but some of it will be helpful for those with no knowledge of the Austronesian languages.

The second section consists of reconstructions of the phonological histories of selected Austronesian languages. W presents an especially full discussion of the development of the Formosan languages, followed by studies of selected Philippine languages, several of the languages of the Kalimantan Malagasy and Malay, Old Javanese, Toba Batak, Moken, four languages of eastern Indonesia, and six Oceanic languages. W’s approach to historical phonology is theoretically conservative but also very thorough.

The Proto-Austronesian glossary and the registers comprise the third section of the book. The glossary provides Proto-Austronesian forms with definitions, followed by a list of the forms of the words in the respective modern languages. The glossary is followed by registers of modern Austronesian languages and words cited in the glossary, along with their reconstructed Proto-Austronesian form, as well an English-to-Austronesian languages register and registers to the forms in Robert Blust’s and Otto Dempwolff’s works on comparative Austronesian.

The book concludes with a bibliography and index of topical references and is overall a very useful and intriguing work to read. Although theoretically conservative, it will certainly be of interest to anyone working on the Austronesian languages. The one major criticism I have with the book is that the glossary is not fully indexed to the studies of the languages in the book’s second section. Many of the entries are, but not all; and none of the entries in the registers are indexed to the studies. This is surprising given W’s interest in words and their history. In fact, he opens the book by stating that it is a ‘study of the history of words in the Austronesian languages—their origin in Proto-Austronesian or at later stages and how they developed into the forms that are attested in the current Austronesian languages’ (vol. 1: xix). Still, there is an enormous amount of useful information in the book, even if accessing that information is not as easy as it could be.

A comprehensive Russian grammar

A comprehensive Russian grammar. 3rd edn. By Terence Wade. (Revised and updated by David Gillespie.) Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010. Pp. xxxiv, 596. ISBN 9781405136396. $49.95.

Reviewed by Elly van Gelderen, Arizona State University

The first edition of A comprehensive Russian grammar (CRG) by Terence Wade dates from 1992; David Gillespie’s 2010 revisions in the current edition have kept the contents of the grammar largely as they were in the first edition but have expanded ‘the sources and reference materials used’ (xxix). The book is one of the Blackwell reference grammars and is intended for intermediate students of Russian, not for readers with little or no knowledge of Russian. The grammar includes very minimal linguistic terminology, which again may be useful to English-speaking learners of Russian but is not as efficient for other users. I will offer a few comments on the book’s descriptions of null subjects, negatives, and the particle zhe, from the point of view of a linguist using this grammar; many of my comments apply also to other topics.

The linguistic literature on Slavic discusses pro-drop, or null subjects at length, but the CRG treats null subjects in a footnote (136-37) of ten lines. ‘Я [`I’] is often omitted in everyday speech…and in official applications and announcements….In spoken Russian, pronouns in general are often omitted, since present and future verb forms alone are sufficient to express person and number’. It would be interesting to know if first-person pronouns are omitted most often, as well as answers to a number of other questions; nevertheless, the CRG provides information that is relevant to learning Russian grammar.

Negatives in Slavic are again a frequent topic of linguistic investigation, but one has to look for a treatment throughout the grammar. For instance, in one part of the book we learn about the genitive and accusative after negated verbs, where the reader is required to know the case endings to understand the examples (112), and later in the book, we find examples of the negative particle не with the negative pronouns (157-61), but these examples are not systematically distributed. For example, many have the negative pronoun in preverbal position.

The use of the particle же zhe is introduced in a few places in the book. It is mentioned briefly in a note (154), and then later in the book it is said that the particle follows the word it qualifies and ‘introduces a more categorical emphasis’ (506-07). Additionally, there is included a helpful section with six ways in which the particle is used (513–14). There is no mention, however, of whether it is ever obligatory or of what kind of grammatical category it may be.

Despite some shortcomings that may be noted by readers with a linguistic background, the CRG is a great resource on Russian. For instance, the declension chart (73) is among the most insightful I have seen, and looking up topics is made very easy. There are nineteen pages of table of contents, seventeen pages indexing English concepts and thirty-one pages of Russian words. In sum, I consider this book to be a useful grammar.

Cognition and pragmatics

Cognition and pragmatics. Ed. by Dominiek Sandra, Jan-Ola Östman, and Jef Verschueren. (Handbook of pragmatics highlights 3.) Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2009. Pp. xvii, 399. ISBN 9789027207807. $ 59.

Reviewed by Anish Koshy, The English and Foreign Languages University

Cognition and pragmatics has fifteen articles concerning various aspects of the cognitive processes underlying language use. All the articles deal with current methodologies and debates in the field and summarize latest research findings, while keeping the importance of pragmatics foregrounded.

In the introductoryarticle, Dominiek Sandra discusses paradigm shifts in linguistic investigation and gives an overview of the body of the volume.

Three articles provide necessary background to the field of cognitive science. For Ronald W. Langacker grammar is fully reducible to assemblies of symbolic structures organized in terms of schemas and usage events, for instance. Seana Coulson and Teenie Matlock provide a brief history of cognitive science studies, highlighting the contribution of multiple disciplines and multiple approaches to the field. Dominiek Sandra discusses important aspects of experimentation and statistical tests like the chi-square test and analysis of variance (ANOVA).

Two articles deal with developmental issues. Susan M. Ervin-Tripp sees the developmental process as orderly, universal, and predictable and discusses constructivism and the critical period. Steven Gillis and Dorit Ravid examine language acquisition via innateness, connectionism, and bootstrapping.

Seven articles address various issues of the relationship between language and cognition. Dominiek Sandra traces the establishment of psycholinguistics as a research discipline and discusses connectionism, corpus research, and simulation-studies. Discussing the word recognition system underlying the cognitive processing of multilingual individuals, Ton Dijkstra investigates the possibility of an integrated lexicon. Exploring the relationship between comprehension and production, J. Cooper Cutting looks at the evidence for an associated or dissociated system from various studies.

Roger Lindsay investigates the relationship between perception and language in terms of constraints and neuropsychological evidence and discusses linguistic relativity and determinism. Eleanor Rosch explores categorization studies through the classical phase and prototype theories, challenges against them, and the idea of categories as theories. Awareness, intentionality, and role-plays form part of Elizabeth Mertz and Jonathan Yovel’s discussion on the conceptualization of metalanguage and its constitutive and creative functions. Wallace Chafe explores the debate on language as a conscious versus unconscious activity, asserting that consciousness shapes language pervasively even if largely unconsciously.

Three articles address modern techniques used for modeling human cognition/language processing. Ton Weijters and Antal van den Bosch focus on the role of connectionist models like back-propagation and distributed script processing and episodic memory network (DISCERN) in natural language processing and pragmatics. Discussing the representation and manipulation of concepts and the encoding of background knowledge, Steven Gillis, Walter Daelemans, and Koenraad DeSmedt introduce artificial intelligence and computational linguistics. Michel Paradis discusses cerebral division of labor in verbal communication through investigations of brain-damaged individuals and data from neuroimaging.

There is a sincere attempt made to showcase the crucial relationship between pragmatics and cognitive investigations. That every article begins with basic definitions and ends with the state of the art benefits both a newcomer and an advanced researcher.

Corpus linguistics

Corpus linguistics: Readings in a widening discipline. Ed. by Geoffrey Sampson and Diana McCarthy. London: Continuum, 2005. Pp. xv, 524. ISBN 9780826488039. $60.

Reviewed by Carmela Chateau, Université de Bourgogne

Corpus linguists generally start their careers as linguists or computer scientists. Researchers from vastly different backgrounds will find this book of great assistance in learning more about the sources of the discipline, and it will prove invaluable for students just starting out as corpus linguists. This reader contains forty-two key texts in chronological order spanning fifty years. Besides a general introduction, each paper has a brief introduction setting it in historical context.

The first article predates electronic corpora: Charles Carpenter Fries (1952) used recordings of telephone conversations (about 250,000 words) to investigate the structure of English in use. The subcorpus of 72,000 words used by F. G. A. M. Aarts (1971) contained some spoken texts. Bengt Altenberg (1986) worked on spoken English, to chunk language naturally as part of a Text-to-Speech (TTS) program; Louis C.W. Pols et al. (1998) explored the use of authentic corpora to improve such programs. Peter C. Collins (1987) examined differences between spoken and written English using the Lancaster-Oslo-Bergen (LOB) and London-Lund one-million-word corpora, constructed along the lines of the Brown corpus presented by W. Nelson Francis (1965). Geoffrey Leech and Roger Fallon (1992) examined the cultural aspects revealed by the Brown (American) and LOB (British) comparable corpora.

Corpus construction was discussed by John Sinclair (1987), a key figure in the creation of the Collins Birmingham University International Language Database (COBUILD) Bank of English. Douglas Biber (1992) showed how statistics can be used to confirm the representativeness of a corpus. Statistics were brought into play by William Gale and Kenneth Church (1989) and by Peter F. Brown et al. (1990), investigating parallel corpora for machine translation. Jean Carletta (1996) suggested using the kappa statistic to assess interannotator reliability. Donald Hindle and Mats Rooth (1993) investigated parsing, finding that in some cases there could be no single correct answer.

The treebank approach to parsing corpora was presented by Mitchell P. Marcus et al. (1993). E.J. Briscoe and J.A. Carroll (1995) evaluated a probabilistic parser. The topic of treebanks was discussed in greater depth by Eugene Charniak (1996) and by Geoffrey Sampson (1999). Another approach to treebanks, for Czech, was presented by Alena Böhmová and Eva Hajičová (1999). A Swedish corpus was discussed by Staffan Hellberg (1991), and Anthony McEnery (2001) made the case for corpus research into nonindigenous minority languages (NIMLs). Estelle Campione and Jean Véronis (2001) presented spoken French corpora, semiautomatically tagged for intonation. Esther Grabe and Brechtje Post (2002) looked at Intonational Variation in English (IViE). Ossi Ihalainen (1991) also investigated a British dialect, while Jan Tent and France Mugler (1996) discussed the creation of the Fiji component of the International Corpus of English (ICE).

Douglas Biber and Edward Finegan (1987) examined English from a historical viewpoint, as did Matti Rissanen (1991). Various idiosyncratic aspects of spoken English were also investigated: Ingrid Kristine Hasund and Anna-Brita Stenström (1996) looked into female disputes; Anthony McEnery et al. (1998) focused on swearing; Christopher C. Werry (1996) examined Internet Relay Chat (IRC); David McKelvie (1998) studied disfluency; and Mark G. Core (1998) investigated the use of Dialog Act Markup in Several Layers (DAMSL) utterance tags to explore speech acts.

Gavin Burnage and Dominic Dunlop (1992) were involved in encoding the British National Corpus (BNC). Jean Carletta et al. (2000) used XML for linguistic annotation. L.W.M. Bod and R.J.H. Scha (1996) provided an overview of data-oriented language processing. Gill Francis (1993) and William Louw (1993) used the COBUILD to produce a new, corpus-driven grammar of English and to investigate semantic prosody, respectively.

Corpora have also been used to produce dictionaries for language learners. Philip Resnik and David Yarowsky (1997) discussed word sense disambiguation. Patrick Hanks (1986) investigated meaning potentials. Kenji Kita et al. (1994) used corpora for the automatic extraction of collocations for language learning. Dieter Mindt (1996) investigated corpus linguistics and foreign-language learning. Kenneth Hyland and John Milton (1997) explored differences in native speakers’ and second language learners’ writing. Finally, Adam Kilgarriff (2001) explored the twenty-firstcentury trend, web-as-corpus.