Please remind me: A history of the Japanese particle of recollection kke




Japanese, sentence-final particles, historical linguistics, epistemic modality, degrammaticalization


The Japanese sentence-final particle kke is a marker of epistemic modality with evidential and mirative overtones. Its most common application is indexing the uncertainty of one’s recollection in interrogative sentences, but in declarative sentences it indexes a reaffirmation of the certainty of the utterance. This study traces the grammatical development of kke from the older Japanese perfect auxiliary -kyeri, citing examples from 8th-century Japanese through today. Through examining kke’s diachrony, it provides evidence that modal sentence-final particles can develop from auxiliaries when the contexts in which they are used become restricted over time.




How to Cite

Bundschuh, John. 2021. “Please Remind Me: A History of the Japanese Particle of Recollection Kke”. Proceedings of the Linguistic Society of America 6 (1): 421–432.