Consonant acquisition in Lio

Grace B. Wivell


Lio is an understudied Austronesian language spoken in Central Flores, Indonesia by 220,000 speakers (Ethnologue, 2019), for which no acquisition research has yet been completed. In this case study, the speech of two female bilingual speakers, ages 7 and 9, were transcribed, to determine which consonants were produced in an adult-like manner by each speaker; all consonants that the children attempted were produced in an adult-like manner, excepting [ɰ] and [r]. [ɰ] is of note, as it was replaced by [j], a phoneme in the speakers’ other language, Indonesian, implying a potential influence of bilingualism. 


Austronesian languages; acquisition; Lio

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