Modeling Morphological Subgeneralizations

Claire Moore-Cantwell, Robert Staubs

Abstract


Exceptions to morphological regularities often pattern together phonologically. In the English past tense, exceptions to the regular ‘Add /-d/’ rule frequently inhabit ‘Islands of Reliability’ (Albright & Hayes, 2003), in which a group of words take the same irregular past and also pattern together on a set of phonological characteristics. Adults seem to have implicit knowledge of both the overall pattern (the regular past) and the ‘subgeneralizations’.

We model this knowledge of subgeneralizations through the interaction of a structured lexicon and a Maximum Entropy grammar. Words that pattern together with respect to a particular morphological process are grouped into a ‘bundle’, which is indexed to a constraint expressing the change that these words undergo to realize the morpheme. These ‘operational constraints’ compete with markedness and faithfulness in the phonological component. The phonological regularity of a bundle is represented by the average of constraint violations for members. Novel words are assigned a bundle on the basis of similarity to these averages.

Our model shows promising correspondence with human data, including biases toward regularity and Island of Reliability effects. The model’s joint learning approach to phonology and morphology, as well as an inclusive concept of `context’, show promise for future application.


Keywords


morphology; learning; morphological learning; phonological learning; English past tense; productivity

Full Text:

PDF

References


Albright, Adam & Bruce Hayes (2003). Rules vs. analogy in English past tenses: a computational/experimental study. Cognition 90, 119–161.

Alderete, John (2001). Morphologically governed accent in Optimality Theory. Psychology Press.

Aronoff,Mark & Zheng Xu (2010). A realization optimality-theoretic approach to affix order.Morphology 20:2, 381–411.

Baayen, R Harald, Richard Piepenbrock & Rijn van H (1993). The CELEX lexical data base on CD-ROM .

Boersma, Paul (2001). Phonology-semantics interaction in ot, and its acquisition. Papers in Experimental and Theoretical Linguistics 6, 24–35.

Bybee, Joan & Carol Lynn Moder (1983). Morphological classes as natural categories. Language 59, 251–270.

Clahsen, Harald, Ingrid Sonnenstuhl & James P. Blevins (2003). Derivational morphology in the German mental lexicon: a dual mechanism account. Baayen, Harald & R. Schreuder (eds.), Morphological structure in language processing, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, 125–155.

Goldwater, Sharon & Mark Johnson (2003). Learning ot constraint rankings using a maximum entropy model. Spenader,

Jennifer, Anders Eriksson & Osten Dahl (eds.), Proceedings of the Stockholm Workshop on Variation within Optimality Theory, 111–120.

Golston, Chris (1996). Direct Optimality Theory: Representation as pure markedness. Language 713–748.

Gouskova, Maria & Luiza Newlin-Łukowicz (this volume). Phonological selectional restrictions as sublexical phonotactics. Kingston, John, Claire Moore-Cantwell, Joe Pater & Robert Staubs (eds.), Proceedings of the 2013

meeting on phonology.

Guion, Susan G., J.J. Clark, Tetsuo Harada & Ratree P. Wayland (2003). Factors affecting stress placement for English nonwords include syllabic structure, lexical class, and stress patterns of phonologically similar words. Language and Speech 46:4, 403–427.

Hayes, Bruce (2004). Phonological acquisition in Optimality Theory: the early stages. Kager, Rene, Joe Pater & Wim Zonneveld (eds.), Fixing priorities: constraints in phonological acquisition, Cambridge University Press.

Ito, Junko & Armin Mester (2002). One phonology or many? issues in stratal faithfulness theory. The Phonological Society of Japan (ed.) Phonological Studies 5, 121–126.

Jager, Gerhard (2007). Maximum entropy models and stochastic Optimality Theory.

Marcus, Gary F., Ursula Brinkmann, Harald Clahsen, Richard Wiese & Steven Pinker (1995). German inflection: the exception that proves the rule. Cognitive Psychology 29, 189–256.

McCarthy, John J. (2000). Harmonic serialism and parallelism. Hirotani, Masako (ed.), Proceedings of the North East Linguistics Society 30, Amherst, MA, 501–524.

McCarthy, John J (2007). Hidden generalizations: phonological opacity in Optimality Theory. Equinox.

McCarthy, John J & Alan S Prince (1990). Foot and word in prosodic morphology: The arabic broken plural. Natural Language & Linguistic Theory 8:2, 209–283.

Nosofsky, Robert M. (1990). relations between exemplar-similarity and likelihood models of classification. journal of mathematical psychology 34, 393–418.

Pinker, Steven (1999). Words and Rules: the ingredients of language. William Morrow, New York.

Pinker, Steven & Alan Prince (1988). On language and connectionism: Analysis of a parallel distributed processing model of language acquisition. Cognition 28:1, 73–193.

Prasada, Sandeep & Steven Pinker (1993). Generalization of regular and irregular morphological patterns. Language and Cognitive Processes 8, 1–56.

Prince, Alan & Paul Smolensky (1993). Optimality Theory: constraint interaction in generative grammar. Blackwell, Malden, MA and Oxford, UK.

Ratcliff, John W, David Metzener et al. (1988). Pattern matching: The gestalt approach. Dr. Dobb’s Journal 13:7, 46–72.

Rumelhart, D. E. & J. L.McClelland (1986). On Learning the past tenses of English verbs, MIT press, chap. 18, 216–271.

Staubs, Robert (2011). Operational Exponence: Process morphology in Harmonic serialism. Challenges of Complex Morphology to Morphological Theory, Linguistic Society of America Summer Institute, Boulder, CO. Handout.

Wilson, Colin (2013). A targeted spreading imperative for nasal place assimilation. Fainleib, Yelena, Nicholas LaCara & Yangsook Park (eds.), Proceedings of the 41st meeting of the North East Linguistics Society (NELS 41).

Wolf, Matthew Adam (2008). Optimal Interleaving: Serial phonology-morphology interaction in a constraint-based model. Ph.D. thesis, University of Massachusetts Amherst.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/amp.v1i1.42

Copyright (c)