On meanings of the reciprocal suffix -š- in Balkar

Authors

  • Anastasija Gruzdeva Lomonosov Moscow State University Institute of Linguistics, Russian Academy of Sciences
  • Daria Paramonova Lomonosov Moscow State University

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.3765/ptu.v7i1.5322

Keywords:

Karachay-Balkar, Turkic languages, reciprocal, sociative, competitive, valency-changing operations, scalarity

Abstract

The paper is based on evidence collected from Balkar speakers during the authors’ field trips to Verkhnyaya Balkariya village, Kabardino-Balkarian Republic in August of 2021. The study addresses semantics of the suffix - in Balkar. This marker has three basic meanings: reciprocal, sociative, and competitive. Reciprocal denotes simultaneous mutual action by two or more participants, each (or most) performing more than one semantic role. Sociative describes collective or distributive plural actions. Competitive interpretations refer to situations when two or more people are trying to surpass each other in some activity. All of the basic meanings can be confined to verbal plurality. The suffix also manifests some scalar properties. For each of the basic meanings we reveal certain restrictions on the semantic class of the base verb. Apart from that, a range of additional meanings sometimes manifest in -derivates: durative, iterative, and excessive plurality.

Author Biographies

  • Anastasija Gruzdeva, Lomonosov Moscow State University Institute of Linguistics, Russian Academy of Sciences

    junior researcher at the Laboratory for Study and Preservation of Minority Languages (Institute of Linguistics)

    PhD student at the Department of Theoretical and Applied Linguistics (Lomonosov MSU)

  • Daria Paramonova, Lomonosov Moscow State University
    student at the Department of Theoretical and Applied Linguistics

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Published

2023-01-31

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Articles