Balkar X-marking: a change in progress

Daniar Kasenov


This paper explores patterns of morphological expressions employed by Balkar language (Turkic language spoken by ca. 300K people in Russia) to mark contexts of X-marking (von Fintel & Iatridou 2020): counterfactual conditionals, weak necessity modals, and counterfactual desires. The main oddity of Balkar with respect to X-marking is that its X-marking system appears to be transforming into a system without antecedent X-marking. The theoretical implications of this pattern are explored in this paper.


Turkic; Balkar; x-marking; conditionals;

Full Text:



Copyright (c) 2023 Daniar Kasenov

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.